This Convention applies to all construction activities, namely building, civil engineering, and erection and dismantling work, including any process, operation or transport on a construction site, from the preparation of the site to the completion of the project. A Member ratifying this Convention may, after consultation with the most representative organisations of employers and workers concerned, where they exist, exclude from the application of the Convention, or certain provisions thereof, particular branches of economic activity or particular undertakings in respect of which special problems of a substantial nature arise, on condition that a safe and healthy working environment is maintained. This Convention also applies to such self-employed persons as may be specified by national laws or regulations. The competent authorities may define appropriate criteria for the designation of such persons and may determine the duties to be assigned to them; g the term scaffold means any temporary structure, fixed, suspended or mobile, and its supporting components which is used for supporting workers and materials or to gain access to any such structure, and which is not a "lifting appliance" as defined in subparagraph h below; h the term lifting appliance means any stationary or mobile appliance used for raising or lowering persons or loads; i the term lifting gear means any gear or tackle by means of which a load can be attached to a lifting appliance but which does not form an integral part of the appliance or load. Article 4 Each Member which ratifies this Convention undertakes that it will, on the basis of an assessment of the safety and health hazards involved, adopt and maintain in force laws or regulations which ensure the application of the provisions of the Convention. Article 5 1.
|Published (Last):||4 July 2004|
|PDF File Size:||16.78 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||8.7 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
Outstanding Universal Value Brief synthesis The Willandra Lakes Region, in the semi-arid zone in southwest New South Wales NSW , contains a relict lake system whose sediments, geomorphology and soils contain an outstanding record of a low-altitude, non-glaciated Pleistocene landscape.
It also contains an outstanding record of the glacial-interglacial climatic oscillations of the late Pleistocene, particularly over the last , years. Ceasing to function as a lake ecosystem some 18, years ago, Willandra Lakes provides excellent conditions to document life in the Pleistocene epoch, the period when humans evolved into their present form.
The undisturbed stratigraphic context provides outstanding evidence for the economic life of Homo sapiens sapiens to be reconstructed.
Archaeological remains such as hearths, stone tools and shell middens show a remarkable adaptation to local resources and a fascinating interaction between human culture and the changing natural environment.
Several well-preserved fossils of giant marsupials have also been found here. Willandra contains some of the earliest evidence of Homo sapiens sapiens outside Africa. The evidence of occupation deposits establishes that humans had dispersed as far as Australia by 42, years ago. Sites also illustrate human burials that are of great antiquity, such as a cremation dating to around 40, years BP, the oldest ritual cremation site in the world, and traces of complex plant-food gathering systems that date back before 18, years BP associated with grindstones to produce flour from wild grass seeds, at much the same time as their use in the Middle East.
Pigments were transported to these lakeshores before 42, years BP. Evidence from this region has allowed the typology of early Australian stone tools to be defined. Since inscription, the discovery of the human fossil trackways, aged between 19, and 23, years BP, have added to the understanding of how early humans interacted with their environment.
Criterion iii : The drying up of the Willandra Lakes some 18, years BP allowed the survival of remarkable evidence of the way early people interacted with their environment. The undisturbed stratigraphy has revealed evidence of Homo sapiens sapiens in this area from nearly 50, years BP, including the earliest known cremation, fossil trackways, early use of grindstone technology and the exploitation of fresh water resources, all of which provide an exceptional testimony to human development during the Pleistocene period.
Criterion viii : The Australian geological environment, with its low topographic relief and low energy systems, is unique in the longevity of the landscapes it preserves, and the Willandra Lakes provides an exceptional window into climatic and related environmental changes over the last , years.
The Willandra Lakes, largely unmodified since they dried out some 18, years BP, provide excellent conditions for recording the events of the Pleistocene Epoch, and demonstrate how non-glaciated zones responded to the major glacial-interglacial fluctuations. The demonstration at this site of the close interconnection between landforms and pedogenesis, palaeochemistry, climatology, archaeology, archaeomagnetism, radiocarbon dating, palaeoecology and faunal extinction, represents a classic landmark in Pleistocene research in the Australasian area.
Willandra Lakes Region is also of exceptional importance for investigating the period when humans became dominant in Australia, and the large species of wildlife became extinct, and research continues to elucidate what role humans played in these events.
Integrity The property as nominated covered some 3, km2, following cadastral boundaries and including the entire Pleistocene lake and river systems from Lake Mulurulu in the north to the Prungle Lakes in the south, thereby including all elements contributing to its Outstanding Universal Value.
The revised boundary follows topographic features, with an appropriate buffer within the boundary, to more closely delineate the entire lake and river system but exclude extraneous pastoral areas. Although pastoral development has resulted in ecological changes, stocking rates are low and dependent on natural unimproved pasture and the area remains predominantly vegetated in its natural condition.
For leasehold properties within the property, Individual Property Plans IPPs have been developed and implemented, including actions such as excluding grazing from sensitive areas and relocating watering points to minimise the impact of grazing, to protect Outstanding Universal Value while also allowing sustainable land uses. There have also been significant additions to Mungo National Park, including some of the most archaeologically significant areas of the property.
Much of the scientific and cultural significance of the property is related to the values embedded in or associated with the lunettes. Erosion and deflation continues to expose material in already disturbed areas of the lunettes. Authenticity The authenticity of the natural and Aboriginal cultural heritage values of the Willandra has been established in the first instance, in a western or European cultural sense, by rigorous scientific investigation and research by leading experts in their fields.
Researchers have established the great antiquity and the richness of Aboriginal cultural heritage at Willandra which brought about a reassessment of the prehistory of Australia and its place in the evolution and the dispersal of humans across the world. For the Traditional Tribal Groups TTGs that have an association with the area there has never been any doubt about the authenticity of the Willandra and any particular sites it contains.
The TTGs have maintained their links with the land and continue to care for this important place and participate in its management as a World Heritage property. Aboriginal people of the Willandra take great pride in their cultural heritage and maintain their connection through modern day cultural, social and economic practices.
Protection and management requirements The majority of the area comprises pastoral stations leased from the State and administered by the NSW Land and Property Management Authority. There are also some small areas of freehold land within the property. The NSW Office of Environment and Heritage provides archaeological expertise over all land tenures within the property. Individual Property Plans have been developed to protect World Heritage values on the pastoral stations. Similarly, Mungo National Park, managed jointly by the NPWS and Traditional Tribal Groups under a Joint Management Agreement, is subject to a management plan which aims to maximise conservation of both natural and cultural heritage values while also conserving biodiversity and facilitating appropriate visitor access.
Visitor access to sensitive areas is carefully controlled, and in some areas excluded, to mitigate adverse impacts on World Heritage values.
By law, any action that has, will have or is likely to have a significant impact on the World Heritage values of a World Heritage property must be referred to the responsible Minister for consideration. Substantial penalties apply for taking such an action without approval. Once a heritage place is listed, the Act provides for the preparation of management plans which set out the significant heritage aspects of the place and how the values of the site will be managed.
Importantly, this Act also aims to protect matters of national environmental significance, such as World Heritage properties, from impacts even if they originate outside the property or if the values of the property are mobile as in fauna.
It thus forms an additional layer of protection designed to protect values of World Heritage properties from external impacts. The property management plan identifies issues for management, outlines strategies for responses and identifies responsible parties.
Among the issues and threats to values being addressed through coordinated action are the occurrence of invasive pest species including European rabbits and feral goats , balancing increased visitation with asset protection, controlling total grazing pressure to provide for perennial vegetation regeneration, and limiting accelerated erosion where practicable.
167 Raw, Charleston
Image Results for "167"