A DRAFT SEQUENCE OF THE NEANDERTAL GENOME PDF

Because Neandertals and the presently living humans Homo sapiens occurred in the same geographic area at about the same time from about , to 30, years ago, some researchers considered it likely that individuals from types could have interbred. The resulting gene transfer would be measurable. Since the mtDNA is only a part of the whole genome, no absolute conclusion could be drawn from these conclusions. In order to obtain a better view of the relationship between the Neandertal and out own genome, the analysis of the whole amount of nuclear DNA became necessary. On May 7th an international team of researchers published their success in this endeavour 2. The possibility of comparing our own genome to the Neandertal genome can potentially answer some interesting questions.

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It compares Neandertal genome to the genome of five nowadays humans worldwide. It identifies many genome areas that might have been affected by positive selection of in ancestral modern humans, Green, Et al, The hypotheses are; Neanderlands are closer to non-Africans than to Africans. Segments of Neandertal ancestry is non-African genome. Another one was Non-Africans haplotypes match Neandertals unexpectedly often. Another hypothesis is that an evolutionary change in RUNX2 was of importance in the origin of modern humans and that this change influenced morphological aspect of the upper body and cranium, Green, Et al, The conclusion of the study is that Neandertals shared more genetic variance with present day humans in Eurasia than with nowadays humans in sub-Saharan Africa.

The conclusion sheds light broader issues concerning the gene flow from Neandertals into the ancestors of non-Africans occurred before the divergence of Eurasia groups from one another. The questions asked are: are Neandertals closer to non-Africans than to Africans? Are segments of ancestry in non-Africa genomes? Was evolutionary change in RUNX2 of importance in the origin of modern humans?

And does this change influenced morphological aspect of the upper body and cranium? Green, Et al,

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A draft sequence of the Neandertal genome.

It compares Neandertal genome to the genome of five nowadays humans worldwide. It identifies many genome areas that might have been affected by positive selection of in ancestral modern humans, Green, Et al, The hypotheses are; Neanderlands are closer to non-Africans than to Africans. Segments of Neandertal ancestry is non-African genome. Another one was Non-Africans haplotypes match Neandertals unexpectedly often.

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A draft Sequence of the Neandertal Genome (Article Critique Sample)

We present a draft sequence of the Neandertal genome composed of more than 4 billion nucleotides from three individuals. Comparisons of the Neandertal genome to the genomes of five present-day humans from different parts of the world identify a number of genomic regions that may have been affected by positive selection in ancestral modern humans, including genes involved in metabolism and in cognitive and skeletal development. We show that Neandertals shared more genetic variants with present-day humans in Eurasia than with present-day humans in sub-Saharan Africa, suggesting that gene flow from Neandertals into the ancestors of non-Africans occurred before the divergence of Eurasian groups from each other. The morphological features typical of Neandertals first appear in the European fossil record about , years ago 1 — 3. Progressively more distinctive Neandertal forms subsequently evolved until Neandertals disappeared from the fossil record about 30, years ago 4. During the later part of their history, Neandertals lived in Europe and Western Asia as far east as Southern Siberia 5 and as far south as the Middle East.

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A Draft Sequence of the Neandertal Genome

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