December Learn how and when to remove this template message Platonov was born in the settlement of Yamskaya Sloboda on the outskirts of Voronezh in the Chernozem Region of Central Russia. His father was a metal fitter and amateur inventor employed in the railroad workshops and his mother was the daughter of a watchmaker. He attended a local parish school and completed his primary education at a four-year city school and began work at age thirteen, with such jobs as office clerk at a local insurance company, smelter at a pipe factory, assistant machinist, warehouseman, and on the railroad. Following the revolutions, he studied electrical technology at Voronezh Polytechnic Institute. When civil war broke out he assisted his father on trains delivering troops and supplies and clearing snow.
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December Learn how and when to remove this template message Platonov was born in the settlement of Yamskaya Sloboda on the outskirts of Voronezh in the Chernozem Region of Central Russia. His father was a metal fitter and amateur inventor employed in the railroad workshops and his mother was the daughter of a watchmaker.
He attended a local parish school and completed his primary education at a four-year city school and began work at age thirteen, with such jobs as office clerk at a local insurance company, smelter at a pipe factory, assistant machinist, warehouseman, and on the railroad. Following the revolutions, he studied electrical technology at Voronezh Polytechnic Institute. When civil war broke out he assisted his father on trains delivering troops and supplies and clearing snow.
From through , his most intensive period as a writer, he published dozens of poems an anthology appeared in , several stories, and hundreds of articles and essays, adopting in the Platonov pen-name by which he is best-known. With remarkably high energy and intellectual precocity he wrote confidently across a wide range of topics including literature, art, cultural life, science, philosophy, religion, education, politics, the civil war, foreign relations, economics, technology, famine and land reclamation, amongst others.
It was not unusual around to see two or three pieces by Platonov, on quite different subjects, appear daily in the press. He was elected in August to the provisional directing board of the newly formed Voronezh Union of Proletarian Writers, attended the First Congress of Proletarian Writers in Moscow in October , which was organized by the Kuznitsa group, and regularly read his poetry and gave critical talks at various club meetings.
Platonov joined the Communist Party in the spring of , and started attending the party school, but had left by the end of , for what he later called a "juvenile" reason. Although, like a number of other worker writers many of whom he had become acquainted with through Kuznitsa and at the congress , he may have quit the party in dismay over the New Economic Policy NEP. Deeply troubled by the terrible famine of , he openly and controversially criticized the behavior and privileges of local communists at the time.
He was readmitted as a candidate member only in For the next few years, he worked as an engineer and administrator, organizing the digging of ponds and wells, the draining of swamp land, and the building of a hydroelectric plant. In he published a book about the Black Sea Revolt of Official censure and decline[ edit ] When he did return to writing in , however, a number of critics and readers noted the appearance of a major and original literary voice.
Moving to Moscow in , he became, for the first time, a professional writer, working in the editorial departments of a number of leading magazines. He produced his two major works, the novels Chevengur and The Foundation Pit , between and , overlapping slightly with the beginning of the first Five-Year Plan in These works, with their implicit criticism of the system, drew official sanction, and although a chapter of Chevengur appeared in a magazine, neither was published in full.
In s, Platonov was working together with the Soviet philosopher Mikhail Lifshitz , who edited a Moscow magazine The Literary Critic Literaturny Kritik , that was also followed by Marxist philosophers around the world. According to archival evidence Stalin called Platonov "fool, idiot, scoundrel", but later in the same meeting called him "a prophet, a genius". For his part Platonov made hostile remarks about Trotsky, Rykov, and Bukharin but not about Stalin, to whom he wrote letters on several occasions.
He was exiled[ citation needed ], at the age of fifteen, to a labor camp where he contracted tuberculosis. Platonov himself contracted the disease while nursing his son. In , his last published short story, "The Return", fell under official disapproval. After his death in , Vasily Grossman spoke at his funeral.
Because of his political writings, perceived anti-totalitarian stance, and early death from tuberculosis, some English-speaking commentators have called him "the Russian George Orwell ". Platonov viewed the world as embodying at the same time the opposing principles of spirit and matter, reason and emotion, nature and machine. He wrote of factories, machines, and technology as both enticing and dreadful.
His aim was to turn industry over to machines, in order to "transfer man from the realm of material production to a higher sphere of life. Modern technologies, Platonov asserted paradoxically though echoing a paradox characteristic of Marxism , would enable humanity to be "freed from the oppression of matter.
He also uses much Christian symbolism, including a prominent and discernible influence from a wide range of contemporary and ancient philosophers, including the Russian philosopher Nikolai Fedorov. His Foundation Pit uses a combination of peasant language with ideological and political terms to create a sense of meaninglessness, aided by the abrupt and sometimes fantastic events of the plot.
Joseph Brodsky considers the work deeply suspicious of the meaning of language, especially political language. This exploration of meaninglessness is a hallmark of existentialism and absurdism. Brodsky commented "Woe to the people into whose language Andrei Platonov can be translated. Platonov , discovered by Soviet astronomer Lyudmila Georgievna Karachkina in , is named after him.
Leven[ bewerken brontekst bewerken ] Platonov werd in de omgeving van Voronezj geboren als zoon van een metaalarbeider en oudste van tien kinderen. Na zijn jeugd vervulde hij diverse baantjes en werkte zich via bijstudies op tot ingenieur, in Vanaf publiceerde hij ook zijn eerste verhalen en gedichten. Na de Russische Revolutie toonde Platonov zich actief in de ondersteuning van het Bolsjewistische regime, onder meer bij de bevoorrading van troepen tijdens de Russische Burgeroorlog , later als elektrotechnisch medewerker aan grote projecten. Ook schreef hij propagandistische artikelen in diverse Sovjetbladen.