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Function[ edit ] IL-6 is an important mediator of fever and of the acute phase response. In muscle and fatty tissue, IL-6 stimulates energy mobilization that leads to increased body temperature. IL-6 can be secreted by macrophages in response to specific microbial molecules, referred to as pathogen -associated molecular patterns PAMPs. These are present on the cell surface and intracellular compartments and induce intracellular signaling cascades that give rise to inflammatory cytokine production.
IL-6 is found in many supplemental cloning media such as briclone. Inhibitors of IL-6 including estrogen are used to treat postmenopausal osteoporosis.
IL-6 is also produced by adipocytes and is thought to be a reason why obese individuals have higher endogeneous levels of CRP. It supports the growth of B cells and is antagonistic to regulatory T cells. When psychologically stressed, the human body produces stress hormones like cortisol , which are able to trigger interleukin-6 release into the circulation.
IL-6 was the first myokine that was found to be secreted into the blood stream in response to muscle contractions. IL-6 was serendipitously discovered as a myokine because of the observation that it increased in an exponential fashion proportional to the length of exercise and the amount of muscle mass engaged in the exercise.
It has been consistently demonstrated that the plasma concentration of IL-6 increases during muscular exercise.
This increase is followed by the appearance of IL-1ra and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL Following exercise, the basal plasma IL-6 concentration may increase up to fold, but less dramatic increases are more frequent. The exercise-induced increase of plasma IL-6 occurs in an exponential manner and the peak IL-6 level is reached at the end of the exercise or shortly thereafter.
It is the combination of mode, intensity, and duration of the exercise that determines the magnitude of the exercise-induced increase of plasma IL Therefore, it was first thought that the exercise-induced IL-6 response was related to muscle damage. This finding clearly demonstrates that muscle damage is not required to provoke an increase in plasma IL-6 during exercise.
As a matter of fact, eccentric exercise may result in a delayed peak and a much slower decrease of plasma IL-6 during recovery. It appears in muscle tissue and in the circulation during exercise at levels up to one hundred times basal rates, as noted, and is seen as having a beneficial impact on health and bodily functioning when elevated in response to physical exercise.
CD is the common signal transducer for several cytokines including leukemia inhibitory factor LIF , ciliary neurotropic factor , oncostatin M , IL and cardiotrophin-1 , and is almost ubiquitously expressed in most tissues. In contrast, the expression of CD is restricted to certain tissues.
As IL-6 interacts with its receptor, it triggers the gp and IL-6R proteins to form a complex, thus activating the receptor. These complexes bring together the intracellular regions of gp to initiate a signal transduction cascade through certain transcription factors , Janus kinases JAKs and Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription STATs.
Many neuronal cells are unresponsive to stimulation by IL-6 alone, but differentiation and survival of neuronal cells can be mediated through the action of sIL-6R.
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