Standard atmosphere 2. Nominal dielectric constants and densities of fuels Principal symbols and abbreviations Appendices I Conversion factors 2 Logic gates and truth tables 3 Acronyms and abbreviations V Exercises Solutions to exercises Index vi Forewo by L F E Coombs! In the beginning, i. Perhaps the piece of string attached to the canard structure in front of the pilot, to indicate aircraft attitude relative to the airflow, can -also be classed as an instrument. Limited instrumentation was a feature of the aircraft of the f.
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Introduction to Avionics. Aircraft Radio Systems. Jeppesen Sanderson. Inc, 16 Private pilot manual. Human Perfonnance and Limitations in Aviation. Second Edition. Aircraft Performance Theory and Practice. So, it has been helping pilots prepare for the test with great success. All of the knowledge is faced with ATPL examination. It is designed that user will have two sets of learning, understanding and reviewing the basic knowledge appropriately. The intent is that all applicants keep on eye on basic concepts, procedures and methods made from the whole chapters.
These are important to ainnan for transport aircraft fly. Some of the information may seem basic. There are two reasons for this: Many prospective private and commercial pilots and instrument rating knowledge are learned before, so some review is helpful; also, the airline transport knowledge is based on them but deeper than them.
If it has been a long time since you reviewed the knowledge requirements of the initial information, it might benefit you to review the Aeronautical Theory Course for Pilot Chinese Edition, pressed by Southwest Jiaotong University Press, March, This course is the key element in airman knowledge materials for ATPL.
Although it can be studied alone, we still suggest the user to join the teaching training. You may get many more understanding from your instructors. You may learn from other materials such as CAAC aviation regulations, Flight courses and other teaching materials provided by ATP training organizations. Then, you will be excellent to pass the theory test for ATPL. This introduction has implied a heavy emphasis on knowledge exams, but that is not our style as an instructor.
What you need to know for the knowledge test represents less than the course text - the rest is solid information you must study from the Chinese Civil Aviation Regulations CCAR, i. You will also note an emphasis on computer-based training system CBT. Most pilots are to some extent technically oriented, and it is estimated that well over all pilots use airline computers for flight planning, acquiring weather information, maintaining their logbooks, etc.
Accordingly, we have included access information wherever it is appropriate. As CBT surfers know. And then you will get hold of all of the ATP knowledge gradually.
We believe it is a great contribution for CAAC. We wish this book will provide a good reference to you. Those regulations or rules are very important for operations of aircraft, and other aspects in that field. The regulations change frequently, and answer all questions in compliance with the most current regulations.
When an aircraft is not operated for compensation, only the CCAR 91 rules apply. For the test, assume CCAR rules apply unless the question specifically states otherwise.
CCAR applies to air carriers airlines engaged in China or overseas air transportation. Carriers which operate under CCAR are engaged in common carriage. This means that they offer their services to the public and receive compensation for those services. CCAR operators are subdivided into three categories. Carriers authorized to conduct scheduled operations within China are domestic air carriers.
Flag carriers conduct scheduled operations inside and outside China A supplemental carrier conducts its operations anywhere that its operations specifications permit but only on a non-scheduled basis. There is a fourth category, commercial operators of large aircraft, but they must comply with the rules covering supplemental carrier and the distinction is unimportant to this discussion.
Other parts of the regulations apply as well. CCAR 61 governs certifications of pilots and fl ight instructors. CCAR 67 covers the issuing and standards for medical certificates.
CCAR 65 prescribes the requirements for issuing certificates and associated ratings and the general operating rules for the holders of those certificates and ratings. A person must hold a type rating to act as pilot-in-command of a large aircraft over 5 kg gross take-off weight , or of a mrbojet-powered airplane.
Any type rating s on the pilot certificate of an applicant who successfully complete an ATP checkride will be included on the ATP Certificate with the privileges and limitations of the ATP Certificate, provided the applicant passes the checkrjde in the same category and class of aircraft for which the applicant holds the type rating s.
However, the ATP may not instruct for more than 8 hours in one day. The temporary certificate is valid no more than days. A crewmember is a person assigned to duty in the aircraft during flight This includes pilots, flight engineers, navigators, flight attendants or anyone else assigned to duty in the airplane.
Note that this rule applies to any pilot position in the aircraft, but it does not apply to other flight crew positions such as flight engineer or navigator. To exercise ATP privileges such as pilot-in-command of an air carrier flight a pilot must hold a First-Class Medical Certificate issued within the preceding 6 or 12 calendar months. To exercise commercial pilot privileges e. The applicant is not required to hold a medical certificate when taking a test or check for a certificate, rating, or authorization conducted in a flight simulator or flight trainillg device.
The aircraft "type certificate" states whether or not a flight engineer is required. The number of flight attendants is determined by the number of installed passenger seats - not by the actual number of passengers on board.
Each certificate holder shall provide at least the minimum number of flight attendants on each passenger-carrying airplane. For airplanes having a seating capacity of more than 20 but less than 50 passengers: at least one flight attendant. For airplanes having a seating capacity of more than 51 but less than passengers: at least two flight attendants. For airplanes having a seating capacity of more than passengers: at least two flight attendants plus one additional flight attendant for each unit or part of a unit of 50 passenger seats above a seating capacity of passengers.
If, in conducting the emergency evacuation demonstration required under CCAR , the certificate holder used more flight attendants than is required under the paragraph above of this section for the maximum seating capacity of the airplane, he may not, thereafter, take off that airplane in its maximum seating capacity configuration with fewer flight attendants than the number used during the emergency evacuation demonstration; or in any reduced seating capacity configuration with fewer flight attendants than the number required by the paragraph above of this section for that seating capacity plus the number of flight attendants used during the emergency evacuation demonstration that were in excess of those required under the paragraph above of this section.
During take-off and landing, flight attendants required by this section shall be located as near as practicable to required floor level exists and shall be uniformly distributed throughout the airplane in order to provide the most effective egress of passengers in event of an emergency evacuation.
During taxi, flight attendants required by this section must remain at their duty stations with safety belts and shoulder harnesses fastened except to perform duties related to the safety of the airplane and its occupants. At stops where passengers remain on board, and on the airplane for which a flight attendant is not required by CCAR , the certificate holder must ensure that a person who is qualified in the emergency evacuation procedures for the airplane as required in CCAR , and who is identified to the passengers, remains on board the airplane, or nearby the airplane, in a position to adequately monitor passenger safety; and the airplane engines are shut down; and at least one floor level exit remains open to provide for the deplaning of passengers.
On each airplane for which flight attendants are required by CCAR , but the number of flight attendants remaining aboard is fewer than required by CCAR , the certificate holder shall ensure that the airplane engines are shut down, and at least one floor level exit remains open to provide for the deplaning of passengers; and the number of flight attendants on board is at least half the number required by CCAR , rounded down to the next lower number in the case of fractions, but never fewer than one.
The certificate holder may substitute for the required flight attendants 3 other persons qualified in the emergency evacuation proced:! AC-approved ;:ocedures. Group I aircraft are propeller driven.
Turbojet aircraft are Group ll. Initial training is the training required for crewmembers and dispatchers who have not qualified and served in the same capacity i. Transition training is the training required for crewmembers or dispatchers who have qualified and served in the same capacity on another aircraft of the same group.
Upgrade training is the training required for crewmembers who have qualified and served as second-in-command or flight engineer on a particular airplane type e. Differences training is the training required for crewmembers or dispatchers who have qualified and served on a particular type of airplane before they can serve in the same capacity on a variation of that airplane.
For example, a crewmember who is qualified on a Boeing would need differences training to serve on a Boeing In addition, within the preceding 6 calendar months the pilot-in-command must have either passed a proficiency check or completed an approved simulator training course. Pilots other than the PIC pilot-in-command must have either passed a proficiency check or completed "line oriented" simulator training within the last 24 calendar months.
In addition, the co-pilot must have had a proficiency check or any other kind of simulator training within the last 12 calendar months. When a pilot has not made 3 take-offs and landings within the preceding 90 days, the pilot 4 must make at least 3 take-offs and landings in the type of airplane in which that person is to setve or in an advanced simulator. These take-offs and landings must include: A. At least 1 take-off with a simulated failure of the most critical powerplant; B. At least 1 landing to a full stop.
If a flight goes to an alternate airport, the minimums do not have to be raised by m, but they can not be less than m. To be eligible for Category II authorization, a pilot must have made at least 6 ILS approaches since the beginning of the 6th month before the test These approaches must be under actual or simulated instrument flight conditions down to the minimum landing altitude for the ILS approach in the type aircraft in which the flight test is to be conducted. However, the approaches need not be conducted down to the decision heights authorized for Category II operations.
At least 3 of these approaches must have been conducted manually, without the use of an approach coupler. Besides the limits on flight time, there are required periods of rest based on the amount of flying done within a hour period. There is also a requirement that a flight crewmember be given at least 36 consecutive hours of rest in any 7 consecutive days periods.
A person cannot be assigned to any ground or flight duties during required rest periods. The term "deadhead" is used to describe the transportation of crewmembers by the air carrier to or from their flight assignments when that transportation is not local in character. Time spent in deadhead air transportation cannot be considered part of a required rest period.
No pilot of a supplemental carrier may be on flight deck duty for more than 8 hours in any 24 consecutive hours. If three pilots are assigned to a flight, the crew can be aloft no more than 16 hours in any 24 consecutive hours. The flight time may be extended to 9 hours if there are no more than 2 segments in the flight After the duty period the crewmember must be given a scheduled rest period of at least 10 consecutive hours. This rest period must occur between the completion of the scheduled duty period and the commencement of the subsequent duty period.
After the duty period the crewmember must be given a scheduled rest period of at least 14 consecutive hours. In case of any delays happening in the operation, the duty period may be extended to 18 hours at most, but the rest period there after must not be reduced.
In case of any delays happening in the operation, the duty period may be extended to 20 hours at most, but the rest period there after must not be reduced.
After the duty period the crewmember must be given a scheduled rest period of at least 22 consecutive hours. In case of any delays happening in the operation, the duty period may be extended to 22 hours at most, but the rest period there after must not be reduced.
A certificate holder may assign a navigator, a flight engineer, or batman to a scheduled duty period of more than 14 hours, but no more than 16 hours.
ATPL Reference Book
Aircraft Instruments & Integrated System by e.h.j Pallett -
The Daily Telegraph , 1971, UK, English