Grunig in University of Maryland, College Park , defines that publics can be identified and classified in the context to which they are aware of the problem and the extent to which they do something about the problem. This theory explains when people communicate and when communications aimed at people are most likely to be effective. Key Concepts as Variables[ edit ] Problem recognition Independent Variable Problem recognition is the extent to which individuals recognize a problem facing them. Constraint Recognition Independent Variable Constraint recognition is the extent to which individuals see their behaviors as limited by factors beyond their own control. Constraints can also be physical, such as a lack of access to protective gear. Involvement increases the likelihood of individuals attending to and comprehending messages Pavlik,
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Though I lost track of my copy long ago never loan textbooks to students — never , one element of that book influenced how I taught and practiced PR for the past 23 years. For me, the 4 Models became more than a teaching tool. The 4 Models helped me see the potential of public relations and, in part, inspired me to open my own shop so I could get beyond marketing and do some serious PR.
The Press Agentry Model. With roots in the 19th century, press agents worked to influence public opinion by creating news. Barnum was a master of the art form, weaving fantasy and half-truths into his messages. Press agentry is alive and well in the entertainment business to this day. I mean, how else do you explain Paris Hilton?
The press agent invests no time in research and even less in the discussion of ethics. The aim is behavior manipulation. You probably bought his book. I did. The Public Information Model. Somewhere in the early 20th century enlightened PR types shifted toward truth and accuracy in communication, but they did little more than distribute information. But the move away from pseudo events and half-truths was a significant shift toward more ethical practices.
One-way communication is the focus of the public information model. Press releases, brochures, even static Web content, are tools used by these information dispensers. They tell the story and hope someone is paying attention. I see a lot of this model in higher education, including at my own university. The post World War II rise in consumer products created a need for targeted, scientific marketing. PR played a role. Under the 2-way asymmetrical model, practitioners used research to get inside the heads of consumers and to help fashion the sell messages.
While asymmetrical communication is two way, the goal is anything but balanced. The 2-way symmetrical model. A handy website at the U of Florida describes it this way: Uses communication to negotiate with publics, resolve conflict, and promote mutual understanding and respect between the organization and its public s.
The 2-way symmetrical model casts public relations in the role of mediator versus persuader. Under that model, PR pros listen to the concerns of both clients and key publics and help them adapt to one another.
A utopian model? It seems so, since the PR professional must represent the interests of ALL parties while being paid by only one. Can we realistically serve multiple stakeholders whose needs conflict?
For example, can we represent the interests of loyal employee groups while our shareholders demand layoffs in favor of low-cost offshore suppliers? To be successful in business — one of my old bosses used to say — ALL parties must benefit — not just customers and investors. They planned for sustainability before it became a buzz word for the green movement.
Some even showed a sense of ethics and social responsibility — a desire to act in the public interest although it cut into dividends or executive bonuses. What happened? Can public relations move American business toward a more balanced business model and a more ethical one? Maybe not.
But someone has to try. It should be standard business practice. Share this:.
Models for Public Relations: Grunig-Hunt
Like this lesson Share We have all picked up a publication at one time in our lives. But how many of us really give much thought about the method used to get the information out to us? In this lesson we will learn about the four methods of public relations. A First Look at Public Relations Models Have you ever wondered how truthful the articles you read or the speeches you hear are? Are the stories being reported really accurate? Are they trying to tell the truth, or do they purposely mislead their audience?
These models serve as guidelines to create programs, strategies, and tactics. In this model, accuracy is not important and organizations do not seek audience feedback or conduct audience analysis research. It is a one-way form of communication. One example is propagandist techniques created by news media outlets in North Korea. The public information model moves away from the manipulative tactics used in the press agent model and presents more accurate information. However, the communication pattern is still one-way. Practitioners do not conduct audience analysis research to guide their strategies and tactics.
Situational theory of publics