Die quantitativ erste von vielen in der menschlichen Geschichte. Sie kommt immer wieder durch den einzelnen in die Welt. Also ein Aspekt des menschlichen Selbst. Zugleich verdeutlicht dies aber auch die christliche Aufgabe, Selbst zu werden und aus sich eine Einheit zu schaffen.

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He wrote about the ideal good versus the actual good that a single individual can do in the following way: "Ethics proposes to bring ideality into actuality. On the other hand, it is not the nature of its movement to raise actuality up into ideality. Ethics points to ideality as a task and assumes that every man possesses the requisite conditions. Thus ethics develops a contradiction, inasmuch as it makes clear both the difficulty and the impossibility.

By now he expects his readers to be aware that the preface is a key to the meaning of the book. Progress from the "first science", ethics , to the "second science", psychology. Historians , psychologists , anthropologists , theologians and philosophers were all in agreement that the past must be preserved if there is to be a future for humankind.

These soft sciences were of interest to Kierkegaard only in so far as they related to the progress of Christianity. His preface is followed by his first introduction since he published his thesis , The Concept of Irony. It could mark a new beginning but that is not known for certain. All of them were discussing how good and evil come into existence. Kierkegaard says "anxiety about sin produces sin" [12] [13] in this book and later says it again: Repentance is a recollection of guilt.

From a purely psychological point of view, I really believe that the police aid the criminal in not coming to repent. By continually recounting and repeating his life experiences, the criminal becomes such a memory expert at rattling off his life that the ideality of recollection is driven away. Really to repent , and especially to repent at once, takes enormous ideality; therefore nature also can help a person, and delayed repentance, which in regard to remembering is negligible, is often the hardest and deepest.

The ability to recollect is the condition for all productivity. If a person no longer wishes to be productive, he needs merely to remember the same thing that recollecting he wanted to produce, and production is rendered impossible, or it will become so repulsive to him that the sooner he abandons it the better.

Kierkegaard pressed forward with his category of "the single individual. I understand the words of Peter, "To whom shall we go? It is this that binds a man to Christianity. The anxious person stands at the crossroads and wonders which way to go. He wrote: Rebecca at the well Isaac presumably dared with a certain degree of assurance to expect that God would surely choose a wife for him who was young and beautiful and highly regarded by the people and lovable in every way, but nevertheless we lack the erotic, even if it was the case that he loved this one chosen of God with all the passion of youth.

Freedom was lacking. Both freedom and anxiety were absent in these examples of three personal choices but ignorance was present because none of them were personally involved in a very important decision.

Kierkegaard questions: how a person can remain faithful to a choice that is made by others? The others are external powers whereas his spirit is an internal power.

All three stories deal with the world of the spirit. Kierkegaard thinks the "spirit is a hostile and a friendly power at the same time". He wrote: "That anxiety makes its appearance pivotal. Man is a synthesis of the psychical and the physical; however, a synthesis is unthinkable if the two are not united in a third. This third is spirit.

In innocence, man is not merely animal, for if he were at any moment of his life merely animal, he would never become man. So spirit is present, but is immediate, as dreaming. It is in a sense a hostile power, for it constantly disturbs the relation between soul and body, a relation that indeed has persistence and yet does not have endurance, inasmuch as it first receives the latter by the spirit. On the other hand, spirit is a friendly power, since it is precisely that which constitutes the relation.

How does spirit relate itself to itself and to its conditionality? It relates itself as anxiety. Do away with itself, the spirit cannot; lay hold of itself, it cannot, as long as it has itself outside itself. Nor can man sink down into the vegetative, for he is qualified as spirit; flee away from anxiety, he cannot, for he loves it; really love it, he cannot, for he flees from it. Innocence has now reached its uttermost point.

It is ignorance; however, it is not an animal brutality but an ignorance qualified as spirit, and as such innocence is precisely anxiety, because its ignorance is about nothing.

Here there is no knowledge of good and evil etc. The Concept of Anxiety, p. The person who is to be master it is, of course, he himself ruins it; such a person works with perhaps scarcely a third of his power in the right place and with more than two-thirds of his power in the wrong place or against himself. Now he gives up working in order to begin to deliberate all over again, now he works in instead of deliberating, now he pulls on the reins in the wrong way, now he wants to do both at the same time-and during all this he does not move from the spot.

During all this, his life comes to a standstill, as it were; he cannot get the task firmly set, so that it stands firm, so that he is able to tear himself away from this work and have his strength available to carry out the task.

The task does not become a burden, but he is swamped with the burdensome muddling with the task in order to get it, if possible to stand firm. When this is so, he naturally never gets around to carrying the burden; after all, he cannot even get it to stand still; the moment he wants to turn his back, as it were, in order to pick up the burden, the burden seems to tumble down and he has to stack it up again.

Prayer: Thou my God and Father! The question of my salvation concerns no other being but me-and thee. Should there then not remain uncertainty in fear and trembling until the last, I being what I am, and thou what thou art, I on earth, thou in heaven-a difference infinitely great-I a sinner, thou the Holy One?

Should there not, ought there not, must there not, be fear and trembling till the last? Was it not the fault of the foolish virgins that they became sure, and went to sleep; while the wise virgins kept awake?

But what is it to keep awake? It is uncertainty in fear and trembling. And what is faith but an empty fantasy, if it be not awake? And when faith is not awake, what is it but that same pernicious feeling of security which ruined the foolish virgins? Christian Discourses , Lowrie p. Croxall, The Westminister Press, copyright , by W. Jenkins p. Can the "power of the example", [19] or theatre pedagogy , or the theatre of the absurd , help an individual learn how to find the good?

Danish folklore was at this time also coming to the attention of pedagogs. Imagination can be of assistance but it can also keep an individual from making crucial decisions. But failing to "become honest with yourself so that you do not deceive yourself with imagined power, with which you experience imagined victory in imagined struggle" is how a decision can become an impossibility. Nothing except the imagination of the individual involved in making the decision, imaginations of guilt and sin and fear and rejection.

In Repetition the Young Man had to choose to get married or to follow his love of writing. Both were "imaginative constructions" [22] created by Kierkegaard that dealt with hope and love. The Erlking Kierkegaard felt that imaginative constructions should be upbuilding. Kierkegaard wrote about "the nothing of despair", [23] God as the unknown is nothing, [24] and death is a nothing. The single individual has a reality which fiction can never represent.

People should learn the difference between imaginary constructions and reality. Many things are hard to understand but Kierkegaard says, "Where understanding despairs, faith is already present in order to make the despair properly decisive. He says " consciousness presupposes itself. Kierkegaard argued about this in both Repetition and Fear and Trembling where he said philosophy must not define faith.

Can sin and guilt be transferred from one person to another? Is it "an epidemic that spreads like cowpox "? He put it this way in Four Upbuilding Discourses of We do not know the life of Paul in great detail, but we do, however, know Paul, which is the main consideration.

Bold confidence is a difficult matter, because it is not exactly synonymous with mental weakness. If no human being is capable of acquitting himself he is capable of one thing-of indicting himself so terribly that he cannot acquit himself but learns to need mercy. With regard to this, it is difficult for one person to understand another, because the earnest person always lays the stress on himself.

Does the concept emerge through definitions and examples? Sin and guilt are both religious categories as far as Kierkegaard is concerned. He wrote: The concept of guilt as a totality-category belong essentially in the religious sphere.

As soon as the esthetic wants to have something to do with it, this concept becomes dialectical like fortune and misfortune, whereby everything is confused. Esthetically, the dialectic of guilt is this: the individual is without guilt , then guilt and guiltlessness come along as alternating categories of life; at times the individual is guilty of this or that and at times is not guilty.

If this or that had not been, the individual would not have become guilty; in other circumstances, one who is not considered as being without guilt would have become guilty. So it is also in relation to guilt, which is the second thing anxiety discovers. Whoever learns to know his guilt only from the finite is lost in the finite, and finitely the question of whether a man is guilty cannot be determined except in an external, juridical, and most imperfect sense.

Whoever learns to know his guilt only by analogy to judgments of the police court and the supreme court never really understands that he is guilty, for if a man is guilty, he is infinitely guilty. Therefore, if such an individuality who is educated only by finitude does not get a verdict from the police or a verdict by public opinion to the effect that he is guilty, he becomes of all men the most ridiculous and pitiful, a model of virtue who is a little better than most people but not quite so good as the parson.

What help would such a man need in life? Christ alone is an individual who is more than an individual. For this reason he does not come in the beginning but in the fullness of time. Here he questions how the Learner discovers this Error. New sciences were emerging that challenged the conventional ethics of the time as well as the notions of guilt and sin. Kierkegaard described the struggle elegantly. He says, " Ethics and dogmatics struggle over reconciliation in a border area fraught with fate.

Repentance and guilt torment forth reconciliation ethically, while dogmatics in this receptivity to the proffered reconciliation, has the historically concrete immediacy with which it begins its discourse in the great dialogue of science.

And now what will be the result?


Kierkegaard: Angst er et vilkår i alle menneskers liv


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