The aim of the encyclical was to aid and advance the restoration of Christian philosophy , which he felt had fallen into danger and disrepute by adhering to modern trends in secular philosophy , by urging a return to the scholastic thinkers of the Middle Ages , most especially the Angelic Doctor St. Thomas Aquinas , and the related philosophical system of Thomism. The vigorous reintroduction of St. Thomas into the Catholic philosophical teaching was perceived by many as a bold and unprecedented step by the new pope. Indeed, since the French Revolution , most pontiffs had preferred to condemn the errors in contemporary philosophy, not to recommend explicitly a return to the old.
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His brothers included Giuseppe and Giovanni Battista Pecci. Until he lived at home with his family, "in which religion counted as the highest grace on earth, as through her, salvation can be earned for all eternity". In he and his older brother Giuseppe were called to Rome where their mother was dying. Count Pecci wanted his children near him after the loss of his wife, and so they stayed with him in Rome, attending the Jesuit Collegium Romanum. In , year-old Vincenzo decided in favour of secular clergy , while his brother Giuseppe entered the Jesuit order.
In , he gave a student presentation, attended by several cardinals , on papal judgements. For his presentation he received awards for academic excellence, and gained the attention of Vatican officials. During a cholera epidemic in Rome he assisted Cardinal Sala in his duties as overseer of all the city hospitals.
He celebrated his first mass together with his priest brother Giuseppe. Pecci arrested the most powerful aristocrat in Benevento, and his troops captured others, who were either killed or imprisoned by him. With the public order restored, he turned to the economy and a reform of the tax system to stimulate trade with neighboring provinces. On 17 July , he was sent to Perugia with , inhabitants.
Pope Gregory XVI visited hospitals and educational institutions for several days, asking for advice and listing questions. The fight against corruption continued in Perugia, where Pecci investigated several incidents. When it was claimed that a bakery was selling bread below the prescribed pound weight, he personally went there, had all bread weighed, and confiscated it if below legal weight. The confiscated bread was distributed to the poor.
He spent several weeks in England with Bishop Nicholas Wiseman , carefully reviewing the condition of the Catholic Church in that country.
Pecci encouraged the struggle for Catholic schools, yet he was able to win the good will of the Court, not only of the pious Queen Louise , but also of King Leopold I , strongly Liberal in his views. The new nuncio succeeded in uniting the Catholics. From to he was considered a popular and successful Archbishop-Bishop of Perugia. In , after Pope Pius IX granted unlimited freedom for the press in the Papal States,  Pecci, who had been highly popular in the first years of his episcopate, became the object of attacks in the media and at his residence.
Austrian, French and Spanish troops reversed the revolutionary gains, but at a price for Pecci and the Catholic Church, who could not regain their former popularity. Provincial council[ edit ] Pecci called a provincial council[ when? He invested in enlarging the seminary for future priests and in hiring new and prominent professors, preferably Thomists. He called on his brother Giuseppe Pecci , a noted Thomist scholar, to resign his professorship in Rome and teach in Perugia instead.
Charitable activities[ edit ] Archbishop Pecci aids the poor in Perugia Pecci developed several activities[ when? He founded homeless shelters for boys, girls and elderly women.
Defending the papacy[ edit ] Pecci defended the papacy and its claims. When Italian authorities expropriated convents and monasteries of Catholic orders, turning them into administration or military buildings, Pecci protested but acted moderately. When the Italian state took over Catholic schools, Pecci, fearing for his theological seminary, simply added all secular topics from other schools and opened the seminary to non-theologians.
Pecci was likely well informed, since the Pope named his brother Giuseppe to help prepare the event. During the s in his last years in Perugia, Pecci addressed the role of the Church in modern society several times, defining the Church as the mother of material civilization, because it upheld human dignity of working people, opposed the excesses of industrialization, and developed large scale charities for the needy.
In the conclave, the cardinals faced varied questions and discussed issues like church—state relations in Europe, specifically Italy, divisions in the church, and the status of the First Vatican Council.
It was also debated that the conclave be moved elsewhere, but Pecci decided otherwise. On 18 February the conclave assembled in Rome. He retained administration of the Perugia see until
The aim of the encyclical was to aid and advance the restoration of Christian philosophywhich he felt had fallen into danger and disrepute by adhering to modern trends in secular philosophyby urging a return to the scholastic thinkers of the Middle Agesmost especially the Angelic Doctor St. He is praised for collecting together all the other arguments of scholastics, and then made valuable additions as well. He was the first pope…. Matthew rated it liked it Feb 20, Whoso turns his attention to the bitter strifes of these days and seeks a reason for the troubles that vex public and private life must come to the conclusion that a fruitful cause of the evils which now afflict, as well as those which threaten, us lies in this: Philosophy has no part which he did not touch finely at once and thoroughly; on the laws of reasoning, on God and incorporeal substances, on man and other sensible things, on human actions and their principles, he reasoned in such a manner that in him there is wanting neither a full array of questions, nor an apt disposal of the various parts, nor the best method of proceeding, nor soundness of principles or strength of argument, nor clearness and elegance of style, nor a facility for explaining what is abstruse.
LEON XIII AETERNI PATRIS PDF
The only-begotten Son of the Eternal Father, who came on earth to bring salvation and the light of divine wisdom to men, conferred a great and wonderful blessing on the world when, about to ascend again into heaven, He commanded the Apostles to go and teach all nations, 1 and left the Church which He had founded to be the common and supreme teacher of the peoples. For men whom the truth had set free were to be preserved by the truth; nor would the fruits of heavenly doctrines by which salvation comes to men have long remained had not the Lord Christ appointed an unfailing teaching authority to train the minds to faith. And the Church built upon the promises of its own divine Author, whose charity it imitated, so faithfully followed out His commands that its constant aim and chief wish was this: to teach religion and contend forever against errors. To this end assuredly have tended the incessant labors of individual bishops; to this end also the published laws and decrees of councils, and especially the constant watchfulness of the Roman Pontiffs, to whom, as successors of the blessed Peter in the primacy of the Apostles, belongs the right and office of teaching and confirming their brethren in the faith. Indeed, venerable brethren, on this very subject among others, We briefly admonished you in Our first encyclical letter; but now, both by reason of the gravity of the subject and the condition of the time, we are again compelled to speak to you on the mode of taking up the study of philosophy which shall respond most fitly to the excellence of faith, and at the same time be consonant with the dignity of human science. Whoso turns his attention to the bitter strifes of these days and seeks a reason for the troubles that vex public and private life must come to the conclusion that a fruitful cause of the evils which now afflict, as well as those which threaten, us lies in this: that false conclusions concerning divine and human things, which originated in the schools of philosophy, have now crept into all the orders of the State, and have been accepted by the common consent of the masses.
Pope Leo XIII
His brothers included Giuseppe and Giovanni Battista Pecci. Until he lived at home with his family, "in which religion counted as the highest grace on earth, as through her, salvation can be earned for all eternity". In he and his older brother Giuseppe were called to Rome where their mother was dying. Count Pecci wanted his children near him after the loss of his wife, and so they stayed with him in Rome, attending the Jesuit Collegium Romanum. In , year-old Vincenzo decided in favour of secular clergy , while his brother Giuseppe entered the Jesuit order. In , he gave a student presentation, attended by several cardinals , on papal judgements.
Menris While, therefore, We hold that every word of wisdom, every useful thing by whomsoever discovered or planned, ought to be received with a willing and grateful mind, We exhort you, venerable brethren, in all earnestness to restore the golden wisdom of St. The editor of New Advent is Kevin Knight. Contact our editors with your feedback. Its solid foundations having been thus laid, a perpetual and varied service is further required of philosophy, in order that sacred theology may receive and assume the nature, form, and genius of a true science. Nor is that more accurate or fuller knowledge of the things that are believed, and somewhat more lucid understanding, as far as it can go, of the very mysteries of faith which Augustine and the other fathers commended and strove to reach, and which the Vatican Council itself 20 declared to be most fruitful, to be passed over in silence or belittled. That accounts for the unrelenting war which has been made against Scholastic philosophy since the Reformation arose. You know how often among some truths they taught false and incongruous things; what vague and doubtful opinions they held concerning the nature of the Divinity, the first origin of things, the government of the world, the divine knowledge of the future, the cause and principle of evil, the ultimate end of man, the eternal beatitude, concerning virtue and vice, and other matters, a true and certain knowledge of which is most necessary to the human race; while, on the other hand, the early Fathers and Doctors of the Church, who well understood that, according to the divine plan, the restorer of human science is Christ, who is the power and the wisdom of God, 27 and in whom are hid all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge, 28 took up and investigated the books of the ancient philosophers, and compared their teachings with the doctrines of revelation, and, carefully sifting them, they cherished what was true and wise in them and amended or rejected all else.