The Outlines of Sociology 2nd ed. His major works were written in German except for the Polish-language System socyologii He called this process syngenism. Initially, conflict arises between prepolitical racial groups. When one racial group has prevailed, it forms a state that becomes an amalgam of victor and vanquished.
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Life[ edit ] Gumplowicz was a child of a Polish family of Jewish origin. He and his wife, Franciska, had two sons. From he edited his own magazine the Kraj the Country.
Then in , at the age of thirty-seven, he entered the University of Graz as a lecturer in the science of administration and Austrian administrative law. He was diagnosed with cancer of the tongue. He understood race as a social and cultural, rather than a biological phenomenon. He stressed in every way the immeasurably small role of biological heredity and the decisive role of the social environment in the determination of human behavior. While attaching a positive significance to the mixing of races, he noted that pure races had already ceased to exist.
In analysis, he leaned towards macrosociology , predicting that if the minorities of a state became socially integrated, they would break out in war. In his publication, Der Rassenkampf Struggle of the Races , he foresaw world war. During his life, he was considered a Social Darwinist , mainly because of his approach to society as an aggregate of groups struggling ruthlessly among themselves for domination.
At the same time, he shared the naturalistic conception of history and considered humanity a particle of the universe and nature, a particle governed by the same eternal laws as the whole.
But the fact that he published his works in German meant that he was also an important figure in German-speaking countries. Gustav Ratzenhofer was the most prominent of those influenced by him. Gustav Ratzenhofer was the sociologist which Gumplowicz thought most highly of.
He also reviews the relations of economics, politics, the comparative study of law, the philosophy oh history and the history of civilization to the science of society. Small , Franz Oppenheimer. He placed a large emphasis on social groups as well as the sociological investigation of their conflict as a unit. In doing so, Gumplowicz minimized the importance of the individual and magnified the coercion and determination that is excepted by the group to the individual.
He is best known for his pioneer work in establishing sociology as a social science. His contributions to political science and jurisprudence were also important, but they consisted mainly of applications of his sociological generalizations to government and law. A clear and vigorous writer, he was much given to controversy in all three fields. The sociological system of Gumplowicz was based on a number of fundamental dogmas or principles: 1 social phenomena are governed by universal laws that operate in a completely secular manner, unrelated to religious or moral considerations, and they must be studied by using a thoroughly scientific method; 2 sociology rejects all value judgments; and 3 sociology is the science of the interaction of groups. Applying these principles to the evolution of society and states, Gumplowicz held that the earliest forms of group life were small, natural, ethnic or blood-kin hordes. These groups were unified by consanguinity and common, rudimentary economic interests; their members lived in sexual promiscuity and relative equality of social position. Out of this earliest form of group life arose, in succession, the matriarchate and the patriarchate, the first types of organized control.
Der Sohn Maximilian starb bereits Unter den beeinflussten Gelehrten ragt Gustav Ratzenhofer hervor. Im Jahr wurde in Wien Donaustadt Ich tue offenbar nicht gelehrt genug. Ihr ergebener Th.